Čandāyan | Monography or Translations of known period | Fables, Tales and Stories | Survey | Perso-Indica

Fables, Tales and Stories

Monography or Translations of known period
‘Abd al-Quddūs Gangohī, Čandāyan

[Preliminary Entry] The Čandāyan of ‘Abd al-Quddūs Gangohī (d. 945/1537) is the first Persian translation of the Indian popular love story known as Canainī. Gangohī’s translation is based on the Hindi version in maṯnawī style (also titled Candāyan) versified by Mawlānā Dāwūd of Damaul (Uttar Pradesh) in 1379 during the reign of Fīrūz Šāh Tuġluq (r. 1351-1388). Being the earliest Sufi maṯnawī in Hindi, Candāyan is certainly one of the most important premier endeavors of integrating Indic themes and mythology into Sufi literature and has been served as a model for later works of this style. 

Impressed by allegorical and mystical content of the story, Šayḫ ‘Abd al-Quddus of Gangoh (Uttar Pradesh), a famous master of the Čištiyya Sufi order, translated parts of it into Persian which were often recited by him while giving religious discourses. ‘Abd al-Quddūs Gangohī’s Persian translation has not survived. The story of Candāyan was later object to another Persian translation in verse entitled ‘Iṣmat-nāma in the seventeenth century by Ḥamīd Kalānwarī.

 

P. S.

Bibliography:
Dehlavi, Sadia, 2010, Sufism, the Heart of Islam, New Delhi, Harper Collins India Publishers.
Digby, Simon, 1975, “ ‘Abd al-Quddus Gangohi, 1456-1537 AD : the personality and attitudes of a Medieval Sufi”, in: Medieval India, a Miscellany, vol. 3, Aligarh, Aligarh Muslim University, pp. 1-66.
Hines, Naseem, 1999, “The Snake-bite Episodes in Čandāyan: A Journey within a Journey”, in: A. W. Entwistle - C. Salomon, eds., Studies in the early modern Indo-Aryan Languages, Literature and Culture, New Delhi, Manohar, pp. 167-174.
Malik, Muhamed, 2007, The Foundations of the Composite Culture in India, New Delhi, Aakar Books. 
 
Work in verses
Main Persian Title: Čandāyan
Translator: ‘Abd al-Quddūs Gangohī
Original Sources:
Mawlānā Dāwūd, Canainī.
Other Persian texts quoting this Original Source:
‘Iṣmat-nāma.
Approximate period of composition: 1490-1537